If you have a child or influence children, the most critical thing you can do to improve their self-worth and esteem is to intentionally and lovingly place challenges in front of them.
They don't have the answers to right away.
Take more than a day to complete.
May result in them being wrong and learning how to fail successfully.
Require them to lean on others.
Allow them to make generous contributions to society.
Give them permission to be wrong, take risks, ask questions, and work to find the right answers. Last, keep them focused on effort, not the outcome.
Effort IS success IS transformation IS the root of esteem.
Ironically, this exact strategy works for adults too.
"Children are human beings to whom respect is due, superior to us by reason of their innocence, an of the greater possibilities of their future." Maria Montessori